A female reproductive system comprises of vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and breasts. All these organs work in synchronization to carry out various functions associated with the process of reproduction.
When a baby girl is born, her ovaries contain hundreds of thousands of eggs, which remain inactive until puberty. Toward the end of puberty, the ovaries begin to release eggs. Every month, an egg, which matures in 14 days inside the ovary, is released into the fallopian tube. This is known as ovulation. The egg survives for 24 hours and and can be fertilised during this period only. The egg passes through the fallopian tube for 5-6 days and then enters the uterus. If fertilised, it gets implanted in the endometrium, the wall of the uterus. If not fertilised the egg passes out from the vagina along with the thickened uterine lining. This is known as menstruation.
Female reproductive hormones also play an important role in the functioning of female reproductive system. Oestrogen and progesterone are the two hormones produced by the ovaries. There is also the follicle stimulating hormone that cause an egg to mature once in a month while luteinizing hormone triggers its release. These hormones control the development of sexual characters during puberty, menstrual cycle as well as fertility in women.
Most of the breast problems are not serious or do not cause infertility, but the breasts play a major role during sexual intercourse and after child birth. Nipples are sensitive to touch and are important for sexual arousal. Breasts also go through a lot of changes when a woman bears a child. They produce milk and the milk ducts carry the milk to the nipples for feeding the baby.
Any problems occurring in hormonal secretions, hormonal balance, and the structure and functions of the various organs of female reproductive system can cause reproductive problems in females and can also lead to infertility.
Some common problems of the female reproductive system are:
- Menstrual problems
- Ovarian cysts
- Poly cystic ovary syndrome
- Cancer affecting any organ of reproductive system