The light rays need to be focused by the eye’s lens and by the transparent cornea at the front of the eye in order to form a sharp image on the light-sensitive membrane at the back of the eye called retina. In myopia, the eyeball is comparatively long to the combined focusing power of the lens and the cornea. As a result, the light rays from distant objects are focused incorrectly and cause blurred vision. This condition is also called near-sightedness.
The symptoms usually start during the growing up years, around puberty. The sooner myopia starts, the more damage it is likely to cause to the eyes. The symptoms include:
- Increasing difficulty with clearly seeing the objects lying at a distance
- In children, the performance level decreases as they don’t have a clear vision
The condition stabilises once the child passes through the teenage and reaches adulthood. Males and females both are affected equally by this condition. However, people with a family history of myopia are more likely to develop the condition. Most eyes with myopia are healthy, but there are some people who suffer from severe myopia and develop a form of retinal degeneration.
It can be corrected by wearing concave-lensed spectacles. Older children and adults can also wear contact lenses. Eyeglasses and contact lenses help shift the focus of the light image directly onto the retina. This helps produce a clearer vision. However, wearing glasses or contact lenses does not affect normal progression of myopia. They merely focus the light so that the person can see the object clearly. In some cases, it is corrected through a surgery called LASIK, in which laser is used to reshape the cornea. Complications of laser vision correction are rare, but if they occur, they tend to be serious.