The capabilities of a human eye are exceptionally remarkable. It not only sees objects but also identifies colours, movement, speed, shades, tints etc. This remarkable organ is also very delicate and intricately designed, and is protected by the eyelids while tears help flush out any unwanted substances that might cause harm.
The eye consists of various parts like skull bone, ciliary body, suspensory ligament, pupil, cornea, aqueous humor, conjunctiva, sclera, iris, crystalline lens, vitreous humour, retina, macula, optic nerve, eye muscles, extra-ocular muscles etc. that function in sync to provide vision. Any problem or disorder in any one or more parts of an eye can cause eye disorders that may vary in severity. Usually, if the eye disorder is detected well in advance it can be cured.
There are various factors that can affect the normal functioning of the eyes:
Cataract is the most common eye disorder in people above the age of 75. Cataract occur due to structural changes in protein fibres in the lens, as a result of which the lens looks cloudy. This clouding reduces vision clarity. The cataract can be surgically removed, and the lens can be replaced with an artificial lens.
Glaucoma is another eye disorder that occurs due to increased fluid pressure in the eye. It can be effectively treated if detected early, however, without treatment it can even lead to permanent blindness.
Some other common eye disorders are:
- Corneal abrasion
- Retinal disorders
- Corneal ulcer
Vision disorders are also very common. Hypermetropia and myopia are the most common disorders of vision.
Hypermetropia is the inability to see objects that are closer. It is also known as long-sightedness. Similarly myopia is short-sightedness. In this disorder the patient cannot see objects that are far away.
Other common vision disorders are:
- Double vision
- Eye strain
- Colour blindness